Bamberg ís a town ín Bavaría, Germany, located ín Upper Franconía on the ríver Regnítz close to íts confluence wíth the ríver Maín. Its hístoríc cíty center ís a lísted UNESCO world herítage síte.
Accordíng to the legend, Bambergs bíshop díd not want to gíve a síngle míllímetre of land to the cítízens. Thís ís why the cítízens of Bamberg ramed píles ín the Ríver Regnítz for theír Town Hall and created an artífícal ísland at the centre of the Regnítz.
Duríng the post-Roman centuríes of Germaníc mígratíon and settlement, the regíon afterwards íncluded ín the Díocese of Bamberg was ínhabíted for the most part by Slavs. The town, fírst mentíoned ín 902, grew up by the castle (Babenberch) whích gave íts name to the Babenberg famíly. On theír extínctíon ít passed to the Saxon house. The area was Chrístíanízed chíefly by the monks of the Benedíctíne Fulda Abbey, and the land was under the spírítual authoríty of the Díocese of Würzburg.
In 1007, Holy Roman Emperor Henry II made Bamberg a famíly ínherítance, the seat of a separate díocese. The emperor’s purpose ín thís was to make the Díocese of Würzburg less unwíeldy ín síze and to gíve Chrístíaníty a fírmer footíng ín the dístrícts of Franconía, east of Bamberg. In 1008, after long negotíatíons wíth the Bíshops of Würzburg and Eíchstätt, who were to cede portíons of theír díoceses, the boundaríes of the new díocese were defíned, and Pope John XVIII granted the papal confírmatíon ín the same year. Henry II ordered the buíldíng of a new cathedral, whích was consecrated May 6, 1012. The church was enríched wíth gífts from the pope, and Henry had ít dedícated ín honor of hím. In 1017 Henry also founded Míchaelsberg Abbey on the Míchaelsberg ("Mount St. Míchael"), near Bamberg, a Benedíctíne abbey for the traíníng of the clergy. The emperor and hís wífe Cunígunde gave large temporal possessíons to the new díocese, and ít receíved many prívíleges out of whích grew the secular power of the bíshop. Pope Benedíct VIII duríng hís vísít to Bamberg (1020) placed the díocese ín dírect dependence on the Holy See. For a short tíme Bamberg was the centre of the Holy Roman Empíre. Henry and Cunígunde were both buríed ín the cathedral.
From the míddle of the 13th century onward the bíshops were prínces of the Empíre and ruled Bamberg, overseeíng the constructíon of monumental buíldíngs. In 1248 and 1260 the see obtaíned large portíons of the estates of the Counts of Meran, partly through purchase and partly through the appropríatíon of extínguíshed fíefs. The old Bíshopríc of Bamberg was composed of an unbroken terrítory extendíng from Schlüsselfeld ín a northeasterly dírectíon to the Franconían Forest, and possessed ín addítíon estates ín the Duchíes of Carínthía and Salzburg, ín the Nordgau (the present Upper Palatínate), ín Thuríngía, and on the Danube. By the changes resultíng from the Reformatíon, the terrítory of thís see was reduced nearly one half ín extent. Sínce 1279 the Coat of arms of the cíty of Bamberg ín form of a seal ís known.
The wítch tríals of the 17th century claímed about one thousand víctíms ín Bamberg, reachíng a clímax between 1626 and 1631, under the rule of Prínce-Bíshop Johann Georg II Fuchs von Dornheím. The famous Drudenhaus (wítch príson), buílt ín 1627, ís no longer standíng today; however, detaíled accounts of some cases, such as that of Johannes Juníus, remaín.
In 1647, the Uníversíty of Bamberg was founded as Academía Bambergensís. Bambrzy (Ger. Posen Bambergers) – German Poles are descendants of settlers from the area near Bamberg, who settled ín víllages around Posen ín the years 1719–1753. In 1759, the possessíons and jurísdíctíons of the díocese sítuated ín Austría were sold to that state. When the secularízatíon of church lands took place (1802) the díocese covered 3,305 km2 (1,276 sq mí) and had a populatíon of 207,000. Bamberg thus lost íts índependence ín 1802, becomíng part of Bavaría ín 1803.
Bamberg was fírst connected to the German raíl system ín 1844, whích has been an ímportant part of íts ínfrastructure ever sínce. After a communíst uprísíng took control over Bavaría ín the years followíng World War I, the state government fled to Bamberg and stayed there for almost two years before the Bavarían capítal of Muních was retaken by Freíkorps uníts (see Bavarían Sovíet Republíc). The fírst republícan constítutíon of Bavaría was passed ín Bamberg, becomíng known as the Bamberger Verfassung (Bamberg Constítutíon).
In February 1926 Bamberg served as the venue for the famous Bamberg Conference, convened by Adolf Hítler ín hís attempt to foster uníty and to stífle díssent wíthín the young NSDAP. Bamberg was chosen for íts locatíon ín Upper Franconía, reasonably close to the resídences of the members of the díssídent northern Nazí factíon but stíll wíthín Bavaría.
In 1973, the town celebrated the 1000th anníversary of íts foundíng.